Aeneid 4.1-449



At regina gravi iamdudum saucia cura
vulnus alit venis et caeco carpitur igni.
Multa viri virtus animo multusque recursat
gentis honos; haerent infixi pectore vultus
verbaque nec placidam membris dat cura quietem. 5
Postera Phoebea lustrabat lampade terras
umentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram,
cum sic unanimam adloquitur male sana sororem:


But the queen for a long time, wounded by her grave cares,
nourished the wounds in her veins and is teased by a blind fire.
The great virtue of the man and the great honor of his people come back to mind;
The faces (meaning Aeneas' face over and over) adhere, having been stuck into her chest
and his words, nor does the care give calm peace to the limbs.
The next day was surveying the land with Apollo's torch
and the Dawn had moved the humid shadow from its axis,
when thus she, not well, addressed her sister, who is of one mind with her:

NOTE: Dido's full-throttle infatuation with Aeneas begins.

"Anna soror, quae me suspensam insomnia terrent!
quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes, 10
quem sese ore ferens, quam forti pectore et armis!
Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse deorum.
Degeneres animos timor arguit. heu, quibus ille
iactatus fatis! quae bella exhausta canebat!


"My sister Anna, what dreams frighten me, suspended!
Who is this new guest to approach our seats/home,
carry himself as such in his appearance, how brave of heart and arms!
I believe wholeheartedly, not [with] empty faith, that his race is of the gods.
Fear illuminates degenerate minds. Alas, by what fates was he thrown/tossed!
What exhaustive wars he sang!

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet 15
ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare iugali,
postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefellit;
si non pertaesum thalami taedaeque fuisset,
huic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae.


If it were not fixed in my mind and if it did not sit unmoved,
that I should not wish to join myself to anyone with the matrimonial yoke,
after my first love deceived me, (I,) having been tricked, by death;
If it were not tiring ([to think]) of the marriage chamber and the marriage torch,
then perhaps I could have given into this one sin.

Anna (fatebor enim) miseri post fata Sychaei 20
coniugis et sparsos fraterna caede penatis
solus hic inflexit sensus animumque labantem
impulit. agnosco ueteris uestigia flammae.


Anna, (for I shall confess) that after the fate (death) of poor Sychaeus, my spouse,
and the household gods, sprinkled with brotherly blood,
this alone has turned my feelings and has struck my wavering mind.
I recognize the footprints of the old flame.

Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat
vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras, 25
pallentis umbras Erebo noctemque profundam,
ante, pudor, quam te violo aut tua iura resolvo.


But I might wish that the deepest land either opens up for me, or
that the omnipotent father (Zeus) might drive me to the shades (Hades),
the bloodless shades (ghosts/spirits) in Hades and profound night, with a thunderbolt,
before I violate you, o Shame, or I relax your oaths.

Ille meos, primus qui me sibi iunxit, amores
abstulit; ille habeat secum servetque sepulcro.'
Sic effata sinum lacrimis implevit obortis. 30


He who joined himself to me first, carried away my love(s);
let him have it (the love) with him, and let him preserve it in the tomb."
Thus having spoken, she filled her bosom with rising tears.

Anna refert: 'O luce magis dilecta sorori,
solane perpetua maerens carpere iuuenta
nec dulcis natos Veneris nec praemia noris?
Id cinerem aut manis credis curare sepultos?


Anna responds: 'O you who are more delightful to your sister than light,
will you be gnawed at as you grieve alone in your perpetual youth,
and will you not know sweet children, nor the rewards of Venus?
Do you believe that ash[es] or buried souls care for that?

Esto: aegram nulli quondam flexere mariti, 35
non Libyae, non ante Tyro; despectus Iarbas
ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis
diues alit: placitone etiam pugnabis amori?
Nec venit in mentem quorum consederis arvis?


Granted that: no one moved you [while you were] sick [with grief] for your husband,
not in Libya, and not before in Tyre; Iarbas was despised (by me)
and the other leaders, whom the rich African land has nourished
for triumph: then, will you therefore fight for a pleasing love?
Does it not come into your mind in whose land you have settled?

Hinc Gaetulae urbes, genus insuperabile bello, 40
et Numidae infreni cingunt et inhospita Syrtis;
hinc deserta siti regio lateque furentes
Barcaei. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam
germanique minas?


On this side are the Gaetulean cities, a race unbeatable in war,
and the wild Numidians surround ([us]), and the inhospitable Syrtis (beach);
on this (other) side, a deserted region because of thirst, and the widely
raging Barcaens. What should I say about wars rising in Tyre
and the threats of my brother?

Dis equidem auspicibus reor et Iunone secunda 45
hunc cursum Iliacas uento tenuisse carinas.
Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cernes, quae surgere regna
coniugio tali! Teucrum comitantibus armis
Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus!
Tu modo posce deos veniam, sacrisque litatis 50
indulge hospitio causasque innecte morandi,
dum pelago desaevit hiems et aquosus Orion,
quassataeque rates, dum non tractabile caelum."


I think indeed it is with divine auspices and with favorable Juno
that the Trojan ships held this course by means of the wind.
What a city you will see rise, sister, and what a kingdom
from such a marriage! With the arms of the Trojans accompanied
in how many things will the Punic glory raise itself!
You now ask the gods for a pardon, and with the sacrifices accomplished,
You sweeten things with your hospitality and weave together causes of delay,
while a storm and watery Orion rage on the sea,
and while the ships are shattered, while the sky is not favorable.

His dictis impenso animum flammavit amore
spemque dedit dubiae menti solvitque pudorem. 55
Principio delubra adeunt pacemque per aras
exquirunt; mactant lectas de more bidentis
legiferae Cereri Phoeboque patrique Lyaeo,
Iunoni ante omnis, cui vincla iugalia curae.


These things having been said, she set fire to her mind with vast love
and she gave a hope to her dubious (wavering) mind and dissolved her shame.
First they went to the temples and they sought out peace through the altars;
they sacrificed young sheep chosen by ritual
to Ceres, who is the bringer of laws, and to Phoebus and to father Bacchus,
and before all to Juno, to whom the conjugal chains are for a care.

Ipsa tenens dextra pateram pulcherrima Dido 60
candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit,
aut ante ora deum pinguis spatiatur ad aras,
instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis
pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta.


She herself, most beautiful Dido, holding the plate with the right hand
pours it in the middle of the horns of a shining white heifer,
or before the faces of the gods (statues of the gods) she walks to the rich altars,
and she begins the day with gifts, and, inhaling, she consults the breathing entrails
of the cattle, with their chests having been opened.

Heu, vatum ignarae mentes! Quid vota furentem, 65
quid delubra iuvant? Est mollis flamma medullas
interea et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.


Alas, the ignorant minds of the bards/prophets! How do prayers,
how do shrines help the raging [woman]? A thin flame eats the marrow
and all the while, a quiet wound lives under her breast.

NOTE: Notice how Vergil himself comments about the "minds of the bards/prophets" and their shrines (65-66), suggesting his sympathy for Dido.

Uritur infelix Dido totaque vagatur
urbe furens, qualis coniecta cerua sagitta,
quam procul incautam nemora inter Cresia fixit 70
pastor agens telis liquitque volatile ferrum
nescius: illa fuga silvas saltusque peragrat
Dictaeos; haeret lateri letalis harundo.


Unlucky Dido burns, and raging, she wanders
the whole city, like a deer, which within the woods of Crete
which a shepherd, unknowing, driving with weapons
has fixed (in her) and has relinquished the flying sword:
she in her flight wanders the woods and glades of Artemis;
the deadly arrow stuck in her side.

Nunc media Aenean secum per moenia ducit
Sidoniasque ostentat opes urbemque paratam, 75
incipit effari mediaque in voce resistit;
nunc eadem labente die convivia quaerit,
Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores
exposcit pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore.


Now she leads Aeneas through the middle of the city walls with her
and shows [him] the Sidonian wealth and the prepared city,
and begins to speak and stops in mid-voice;
now she seeks the same banquets as the day wanes,
and she, frantic, demands to here again the Trojan labors,
and hangs again from the mouth of the narrator.

NOTE: Dido repeats the first day's banquet in her mind, as if trying to make Aeneas' time in Carthage never end.

Post ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim 80
luna premit suadentque cadentia sidera somnos,
sola domo maeret vacua stratisque relictis
incubat. Illum absens absentem auditque videtque,
aut gremio Ascanium genitoris imagine capta
detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem. 85

Then after they have departed, and the dark moon
in turn represses its light and the setting stars urge sleep,
she grieves alone in the empty house, and reclines on the couch [Aeneas] had left.

She, being absent, hears and sees him who is absent,
or she embraces Ascanius in her lap, captured by the image of his father,
[wondering] if she might be able to cheat this unspeakable love.

NOTE: Dido reclines on the coach that Aeneas was sitting on before, in order to appease her sense of desolation she feels in his absence.
  • What is important to note, and what allows us to appreciate more the tragedy of Dido, is the fact that she's pretty vulnerable, and subject to teen flights of fancy. Yes, that's right, teen. Remember that she married young, and had her husband killed very shortly thereafter; she fled with some loyal people and adapted quickly on the fly. But she's still not old or jaded.


Non coeptae adsurgunt turres, non arma iuventus
exercet portusue aut propugnacula bello
tuta parant: pendent opera interrupta minaeque
murorum ingentes aequataque machina caelo.
Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri 90
cara Iovis coniunx nec famam obstare furori,
talibus adgreditur Venerem Saturnia dictis:


The towers, although begun, don't rise; the youths do not
exercise their arms, nor do they prepare the ports or the ramparts
as safe from war: the labors and the huge threats of the walls
and the machine/crane as high as the sky hangs, interrupted.
As soon as the dear wife of Jupiter (Juno) has perceived that she (Dido)
has been held by such a plague and as soon as Juno perceived that reputation does not stand
in the way of passion, she, daughter of Saturn, attacks Venus with such words:

"Egregiam vero laudem et spolia ampla refertis
tuque puerque tuus (magnum et memorabile numen),
una dolo divum si femina victa duorum est. 95
Nec me adeo fallit ueritam te moenia nostra
suspectas habuisse domos Karthaginis altae.


"Oh sure, you are carrying back an extraordinary praise and ample loot,
both you and your boy (a great and memorable power),
if one woman is conquered by the deceit of two gods.
Nor does it deceive me to such a degree, having [already] feared that you have held
in suspicion our city walls and the homes of high Carthage.

Sed quis erit modus, aut quo nunc certamine tanto?
Quin potius pacem aeternam pactosque hymenaeos
exercemus? Habes tota quod mente petisti:
100

But what will be the result, or whither now [are we headed] with such a struggle?
Why don't we exercise eternal peace and settled marriages?
You now have that which you wanted completely with your whole mind:

Ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem.
Communem hunc ergo populum paribusque regamus
auspiciis; liceat Phrygio servire marito
dotalisque tuae Tyrios permittere dextrae."
Olli (sensit enim simulata mente locutam, 105
quo regnum Italiae Libycas averteret oras)
sic contra est ingressa Venus: "Quis talia demens
abnuat aut tecum malit contendere bello?


Dido, in love, burns, and she drags rage through her bones.
Therefore, let us rule these people in common with equal auspices/beginnings;
Let it be permitted to serve a Trojan husband
and to allow the Tyrians as a dowry to your right hand."
To her (for she sensed that she spoke with a false mind, by which
she might turn away kingdom of Italy to Libyan shores),
Venus then attacks against [Juno] thus: 'Who in their madness would
deny such things or would prefer to contend in war with you?

NOTE: "with a false mind," meaning that Venus suspected Juno of trying to trick her, that Aeneas would stay with Dido and not found his kingdom in Italy.

Si modo quod memoras factum fortuna sequatur.
sed fatis incerta feror, si Iuppiter unam 110
esse velit Tyriis urbem Troiaque profectis,
misceriue probet populos aut foedera iungi.
Tu coniunx, tibi fas animum temptare precando.


If only fortune should follow the deeds which you mention.
But I am carried as uncertain by the fates, if Jupiter wishes
that there be one city for the Tyrians and for those who have set out from Troy,
and he approves the people are mixed and joined by treaty.
Your spouse (Jupiter), it is right for you to tempt his mind by means of entreaty.

Perge, sequar.' Tum sic excepit regia Iuno:
'Mecum erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione quod instat 115
confieri possit, paucis (aduerte) docebo.
Venatum Aeneas unaque miserrima Dido
in nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus
extulerit Titan radiisque retexerit orbem.


'Proceed, I will follow.' Then queenly Juno thus rejoined:
'That dreadful labor shall be with me. Now I shall inform in brief (you listen),
how that which is pressing on us could be done.
Aeneas and together with him most wretched Dido prepare
to go to hunt in the woods, when tomorrow's Titan shall have
carried out his first risings and when he has uncovered again the earth with his rays.

His ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum, 120
dum trepidant alae saltusque indagine cingunt,
desuper infundam et tonitru caelum omne ciebo.
diffugient comites et nocte tegentur opaca:
speluncam Dido dux et Troianus eandem
devenient. adero et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 125
conubio iungam stabili propriamque dicabo.


I shall pour from above a blackening cloud, mixed with hail, upon them
while the wings are fluttering and ([while they]) surround the forest with their snares,
and I shall stir up the whole sky with thunder.
The comrades will scatter and they will be covered with opaque night:
Dido, the leader, and the Trojan (Aeneas) will arrive at the same cave.
I will be present, and, if your wish is true to me (true to my wish),
then I will join them in a stable marriage and I will proclaim her to be his.

Hic hymenaeus erit." Non adversata petenti
adnuit atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis.
Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit.
It portis iubare exorto delecta iuuentus, 130
retia rara, plagae, lato venabula ferro,
Massylique ruunt equites et odora canum vis.


This will be their marriage." Not opposed to the one seeking, Venus nods
and laughs at the tricks that have been revealed.
Meanwhile, rising dawn abandons the ocean.
With the crest (sun) having been raised, the chosen youth goes to the gates.
the finely spun nets, the wider nets, the spears with wide iron,
and the African horses rush out and the smelling power of dogs
(dogs with great sense of smell).

Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi
Poenorum exspectant, ostroque insignis et auro
stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit. 135
Tandem progreditur magna stipante caterua
Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo;
cui pharetra ex auro, crines nodantur in aurum,
aurea purpuream subnectit fibula uestem.


First of the Phoenicians (royalty) wait at the thresholds
for the queen, delaying in the bedchamber, the thunder-foot (horse)
stands splendid with purple and gold, and fierce, he chews the
frothy bridle. Finally she proceeds with a huge crowd crowding,
wrapped in a Sidonian cloak with a painted border;
to whom the quiver ([made]) out of gold and whose tresses are knotted in gold,
and a gold pin fastens her purple garment.

Nec non et Phrygii comites et laetus Iulus 140
incedunt. Ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnis
infert se socium Aeneas atque agmina iungit.
Qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique fluenta
deserit ac Delum maternam inuisit Apollo
instauratque choros, mixtique altaria circum 145
Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi;


As well the Phrygian comrades and happy Iulus
go forth. Before all others Aeneas himself, most handsome, carries himself as an ally
and joins the battle lines. Just like when Apollo deserts wintry Lydia (Troy) and the
streams of Xanthus and he visits maternal Delos and he refreshes/renews his choruses,
and around the altars Cretans and Dryopes and Agathyrsi roar all mixed together;

Ipse iugis Cynthi graditur mollique fluentem
fronde premit crinem fingens atque implicat auro,
tela sonant umeris: haud illo segnior ibat
Aeneas, tantum egregio decus enitet ore. 150


He himself (Apollo) walks from the peaks of Cynthus and presses down his
flowing hair with a soft foliage, molding (it), and he ties it with gold,
the weapons clang on his shoulders: not at all slower than him,
Aeneas was going, so much did the splendor shine from [his] remarkable face.

Postquam altos ventum in montis atque invia lustra,
ecce ferae saxi deiectae vertice caprae
decurrere iugis; alia de parte patentis
transmittunt cursu campos atque agmina cervi
pulverulenta fuga glomerant montisque relinquunt. 155


After there was an arrival (they arrived) in the high mountains and into the
pathless lair, behold, wild goats thrown down from the top of the rock
and ran down from the crags; on the other side, stags cross the open field
with their running, and they gather together their dusty battle lines in their
flight, and leave the mountains.

At puer Ascanius mediis in vallibus acri
gaudet equo iamque hos cursu, iam praeterit illos,
spumantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis
optat aprum, aut fulvum descendere monte leonem.
Interea magno misceri murmure caelum 160
incipit, insequitur commixta grandine nimbus,
et Tyrii comites passim et Troiana iuventus
Dardaniusque nepos Veneris diversa per agros
tecta metu petiere; ruunt de montibus amnes.


But the boy Ascanius rejoices on the sharp horse in the middle of the valleys
now he passes these and passes those in his course, and he chooses
among the inert flocks, that a frothing boar be given in his prayers,
or (he prays) that a tawny lion descend from the mountains.
Meanwhile, the sky begins to be mixed with a great roar, ([and]) a cloud follows
with mixed hail, and the Trojan comrades and the Trojan youth and
the Dardanian son of Venus seek different roofs through the fields in their
fear; the rains rush down from the roofs.

Speluncam Dido dux et Troianus eandem 165
deveniunt. Prima et Tellus et pronuba Iuno
dant signum; fulsere ignes et conscius aether
conubiis summoque ulularunt vertice Nymphae.


Dido, the leader, and the Trojan arrive to the same cave.
First Mother Earth , and Juno, the partron of marriage, give the sign;
the fires blazed and the upper air, aware, and the Nymphs
from the top of the peak shouted (in favor) at the marriage.

Ille dies primus leti primusque malorum
causa fuit; neque enim specie famave movetur 170
nec iam furtiuum Dido meditatur amorem:
coniugium vocat, hoc praetexit nomine culpam.


That day was the first day of death and it was the cause of evils;
neither is she moved by appearance or by reputation, nor does Dido
any longer think about a secret love:
she calls it a marriage, and with this name (marriage) she covers her offense (of secret love).

Extemplo Libyae magnas it Fama per urbes,
Fama, malum qua non aliud velocius ullum:
mobilitate viget virisque adquirit eundo,
175
parva metu primo, mox sese attollit in auras
ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit.
Illam Terra parens ira inritata deorum
extremam, ut perhibent, Coeo Enceladoque sororem
progenuit pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis,
180
monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui quot sunt corpore plumae,
tot vigiles oculi subter (mirabile dictu),
tot linguae, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit auris.


Immediately, Rumor goes through the great cities of Libya,
Rumor, an evil which no other is faster:
She (Rumor) grows stronger with movement and acquires strength by being passed on,
small at first due to fear, but soon she raises her head
and enters in the wind, and walks among the clouds.
Mother Earth, irritated with the anger of the gods,
gave birth to her, as a sister for Coeus and Enceladus,
quick on her feet and swift on her wings,
a terrible monster, huge, who for every feather there is on her body,
there are that many watchful eyes below (wondrous to tell), that many languages, that many mouths talking, and that many ears hearing below.

NOTE: "For every feather..." means not only just the number of people
talking about Rumor, and Rumor having just as many feathers (the more "feathers," the more quickly it spreads) - but also that more and more feathers keep appearing everytime someone learns about the rumor. Of couse, that means it's spreading faster and faster.

Nocte volat caeli medio terraeque per umbram
stridens, nec dulci declinat lumina somno;
185
luce sedet custos aut summi culmine tecti
turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes,
tam ficti prauique tenax quam nuntia veri.


At night she flies in the middle of the sky and through the shadow of the land
screeching, nor does she close her eyes for sweet sleep;
in the daylight she sits as guardian on the peak of the highest roof,
or on high towers, and she terrifies great cities,
as much grasping onto the false and depraved as she is a messenger of truth.

NOTE: "as much false... truth." Rumors can be just as true as they are false.

Haec tum multiplici populos sermone replebat
gaudens, et pariter facta atque infecta canebat: 190
venisse Aenean Troiano sanguine cretum,
cui se pulchra viro dignetur iungere Dido;
nunc hiemem inter se luxu, quam longa, fovere
regnorum immemores turpique cupidine captos.
haec passim dea foeda virum diffundit in ora. 195
protinus ad regem cursus detorquet Iarban
incenditque animum dictis atque aggerat iras.


She then was filling up the people with her complicated speech, rejoicing,
and she was singing equally the done and the undone:
that Aeneas, created from Trojan blood, came,
to whom beautiful Dido deigned to join as a husband;
and now cherishing the winter, how long [it was], between themselves
in luxury, and they were unmindful of the kingdoms and captured by shameful lust.
The wretched goddess scattered these things everywhere into the mouths of men.
Straightaway, she turns her path to king Iarbas
and she incites his mind with her words and she piles up his angers.

(Aeneas says: That's what she said!)

Hic Hammone satus rapta Garamantide nympha
templa Iovi centum latis immania regnis,
centum aras posuit vigilemque sacraverat ignem, 200
excubias divum aeternas, pecudumque cruore
pingue solum et variis florentia limina sertis.


He, sown/born from Jupiter, the nymph Garamantis having been snatched,
had placed a hundred temples to Jupiter, a hundred huge temples in the wide kingdoms,
and he consecrated the watchful fire,
the eternal sentinels of the gods, and soil rich in the blood of cattle, and thresholds flowering
with varied wreaths.


Isque amens animi et rumore accensus amaro
dicitur ante aras media inter numina divum
multa Iovem manibus supplex orasse supinis: 205
'Iuppiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis
gens epulata toris Lenaeum libat honorem,
aspicis haec? An te, genitor, cum fulmina torques
nequiquam horremus, caecique in nubibus ignes
terrificant animos et inania murmura miscent? 210


This man (Garamantis), insane in his mind and on fire with bitter rumors,
is said to have prayed before the altars among the powers of the gods
much to Jove, on his knees with his hands supine:
"Omnipotent Jupiter, to whom now the Moorish people,
having dined on painted couches, pour a Bacchic offering,
do you see this? Or, father, when you hurl thunder,
do we fear you in vain, and do blind fires in the clouds
terrify souls and stir up empty sounds?

Femina, quae nostris errans in finibus urbem
exiguam pretio posuit, cui litus arandum
cuique loci leges dedimus, conubia nostra
reppulit ac dominum Aenean in regna recepit.
et nunc ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu, 215
Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem
subnexus, rapto potitur: nos munera templis
quippe tuis ferimus famamque fovemus inanem.'


A woman who, wandering within our boundaries, has established
a thin city for a price, to whom we gave a shore
to plough and to whom we gave the laws of the place, she has rejected
marriage with us and received Aeneas as master in her kingdom.
And now Paris (Aeneas) with his half-man company,
having tied up his chin and dripping hair
with a Trojan cap, enjoys his theft: and we, indeed, bring
gifts to your temple, and we cherish your empty name."


Talibus orantem dictis arasque tenentem
audiit Omnipotens, oculosque ad moenia torsit 220
regia et oblitos famae melioris amantis.
Tum sic Mercurium adloquitur ac talia mandat:
'Vade age, nate, voca Zephyros et labere pennis
Dardaniumque ducem, Tyria Karthagine qui nunc
exspectat fatisque datas non respicit urbes, 225
adloquere et celeris defer mea dicta per auras.


With such words did the all-powerful one hear the [man] (Garamantis) speaking
and tending the altars, and he turns his eyes to the city walls
and those lovers who have forgotten their better reputation.
Then thus he addresses Mercury and he commands these things:
"Go forth, son, call the winds and glide on your wings
and address the Trojans leader, who now idles in Tyrian Carthage
and does not respect the cities given to him by fate,
be swift and carry my words through the winds.


Non illum nobis genetrix pulcherrima talem
promisit Graiumque ideo bis vindicat armis;
sed fore qui grauidam imperiis belloque frementem
Italiam regeret, genus alto a sanguine Teucri 230
proderet, ac totum sub leges mitteret orbem.
si nulla accendit tantarum gloria rerum
nec super ipse sua molitur laude laborem,
Ascanione pater Romanas invidet arces?


His most beautiful mother did not promise him as such a one to us
and therefore did not rescue him twice from the arms of the Greeks;
but rather as one who would rule Italy which is pregnant with empire
and seething in war, who would extend his race from the deep blood of Teucer,
and who would send the entire world under laws.
If not, the glory of such great things burns
and if he himself does not heap together the labors for his own praise,
will the father deny the Roman citadels to Ascanius?

Quid struit? Aut qua spe inimica in gente moratur 235
nec prolem Ausoniam et Lavinia respicit arva?
Nauiget! haec summa est, hic nostri nuntius esto.'
Dixerat. Ille patris magni parere parabat
imperio; et primum pedibus talaria nectit
aurea, quae sublimem alis siue aequora supra 240
seu terram rapido pariter cum flamine portant.


What is he doing? And in hope of what does he delay
amid a hostile people, does he not regard his Italian offspring and the Lavinian fields?
Let him sail! This is the point, let this be the message from us."
He (Jupiter) had spoken. The other (Mercury) prepared to obey the command of his
great father; first he binds the golden sandals on his feet, which carry him aloft on wings
either above the ocean or the land, equal to a rapid breeze.

Tum virgam capit: hac animas ille evocat Orco
pallentis, alias sub Tartara tristia mittit,
dat somnos adimitque, et lumina morte resignat.


Then he takes the bough; with this he calls the bloodless souls to Orcus ;
others he sends to sad Tartarus ,
[and] he gives and takes away sleep, and closes eyes in death.

Illa fretus agit ventos et turbida tranat 245
nubila. Iamque volans apicem et latera ardua cernit
Atlantis duri caelum qui vertice fulcit,
Atlantis, cinctum adsidue cui nubibus atris
piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri,
nix umeros infusa tegit, tum flumina mento 250
praecipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba.


Relying on this, he drives the winds and he crosses stormy clouds.
And soon, flying, he spots the peak and the steep flanks
of harsh Atlas , he who supports the sky on his head,
Atlas, whose pine-bearing head is continually girt by dark clouds
and who is buffeted with wind and rain, snow poured upon him covers his shoulders,
and then streams race down from the chin of the old man,
and his bristling beard is stiff with ice.

Hic primum paribus nitens Cyllenius alis
constitit; hinc toto praeceps se corpore ad undas
misit aui similis, quae circum litora, circum
piscosos scopulos humilis volat aequora iuxta. 255
Haud aliter terras inter caelumque volabat
litus harenosum ad Libyae, ventosque secabat
materno veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles.


Here first Mercury of Cyllene, striving on even wings stopped;
from here he sends himself down with his whole body to the waves,
like a bird, who flies near the sea close to the shore
and close to the fishy crags.
Not otherwise than this did he fly between land and sky
to the sandy shore of Libya, and he sliced the winds
as he was coming from his maternal grandfather, this Cyllenian youth.

Ut primum alatis tetigit magalia plantis,
Aenean fundantem arces ac tecta novantem
260
conspicit. Atque illi stellatus iaspide fulva
ensis erat Tyrioque ardebat murice laena
demissa ex umeris, dives quae munera Dido
fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro
.

As soon as he touched the huts with his winged-soles
He saw Aeneas building the citadels and renewing roofs,
and to him there was a sword starred with tawny jasper
and a cloak was burning with Tyrian scarlet
having been let down from his shoulders, which wealthy Dido had made as a gift
and separated the threads with fine gold.

Continuo invadit: 'Tu nunc Karthaginis altae 265
fundamenta locas pulchramque uxorius urbem
exstruis? Heu, regni rerumque oblite tuarum!


He attacks him: "Are you now pouring the foundations of high Carthage,
and building the most beautiful city, you wife-ruled person?
Alas, you who have forgotten the kingdom and your things!

Ipse deum tibi me claro demittit Olympo
regnator, caelum et terras qui numine torquet,
ipse haec ferre iubet celeris mandata per auras: 270
quid struis? Aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terris?


The ruler of the Gods himself sent me down to you from clear Olympus,
he who turns the sky and the lands with his power,
orders me to carry these orders through the quick winds:
What are you doing? Or in what hope do you wear away your liesure in Libian lands?

Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum
[nec super ipse tua moliris laude laborem,]
Ascanium surgentem et spes heredis Iuli
respice, cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus 275
debetur." Tali Cyllenius ore locutus
mortalis visus medio sermone reliquit
et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram.


If no glory of such great things moves you,
[If you yourself do not toil at this labor for your own praise,]
Look back at Ascanius who is rising (growing), and the hope of the Julius
his heir, to whom the kingdom of Italy and the Roman land is owed."
Mercury having spoken with such a mouth
he left behind his mortal image in the middle of his speech
and far off he vanished from [his] (Aeneas') eyes into thin air.

At vero Aeneas aspectu obmutuit amens,
arrectaeque horrore comae et vox faucibus haesit. 280


But Aeneas, insane, truely grew speechless at the true apperance of the god,
and his hair stood up in horror and his voice stuck his throat.

Ardet abire fuga dulcisque relinquere terras,
attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum.
Heu quid agat? Quo nunc reginam ambire furentem
audeat adfatu? Quae prima exordia sumat?


He burns to go away in flight, and to relinquish the sweet lands.
Thunderstruck, by such a warning and by the order of the gods.
Alas, what should he do? With what address, now, should he dare to go around
the raging queen? What first beginnings should he take up?

Atque animum nunc huc celerem nunc dividit illuc 285
in partisque rapit varias perque omnia versat.
Haec alternanti potior sententia visa est:


And he divides his swift mind, now this way, now that way,
and he snatches in different parts and he turns through everything.
This opinion seemed to be more powerful to the alternating one:

Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat fortemque Serestum,
classem aptent taciti sociosque ad litora cogant,
arma parent et quae rebus sit causa novandis 290
dissimulent; sese interea, quando optima Dido
nesciat et tantos rumpi non speret amores,
temptaturum aditus et quae mollissima fandi
tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. Ocius omnes
imperio laeti parent et iussa facessunt.
295

He calls Mnesthea and Sergestus and brave Serestus,
They (he tells them to) fit the fleet quietly, and collect the comrades to the shore,
they should both prepare the arms and conceal what the reason might be
for renewing things; and he himself, meanwhile when excellent Dido
does not know and does not expect ([that]) such love should be broken,
he will attempt the approach and the times that are most gentle of speaking,
and what style will be right-handed (easy) for things.
All (Aeneas' men) obey his commands happily and start to execute his orders.

At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem?)
praesensit, motusque excepit prima futuros
omnia tuta timens. Eadem impia Fama furenti
detulit armari classem cursumque parari.


But the queen perceives the tricks (who could deceive a lover?)
and she, first, grasps the future movements fearing all things which are safe.
The same shameful rumor has carried to the raging one,
that the fleet has been armed and the course has been prepared.

Saevit inops animi totamque incensa per urbem 300
bacchatur, qualis commotis excita sacris
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho
orgia nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithaeron.
Tandem his Aenean compellat vocibus ultro:


Destitute in her mind, she rages, and incensed, she revels through the whole city
like a Bacchant who is aroused when the sacred rights have begun,
when, with Bacchus having been heard, they spur into motion the
triennial orgies, and nocturnal Cithaeron (mountain at night) calls with a shout.
At last, she spontaneously addresses Aeneas with these words:

"Dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantum 305
posse nefas tacitusque mea decedere terra?
Nec te noster amor nec te data dextera quondam
nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?


"And so you hoped to pretend, faithless man, that such a great injustice
is possible and that silently you could depart from my land?
Neither our love, nor the given right hand at any time, nor Dido,
who is about to die a cruel death, hold you?

Quin etiam hiberno moliri sidere classem
et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum, 310
crudelis? Quid, si non arva aliena domosque
ignotas peteres, et Troia antiqua maneret,
Troia per undosum peteretur classibus aequor?


Truly, why do you hurry to prepare the fleet under a wintry star,
and hurry to go through the deep [sea] in the middle of the storms,
cruel one? What, if you were not seeking foreign fields and unknown
homes, and if ancient Troy stood, then would Troy be sought
through the wavy sea with your ships?

NOTE: What Dido means by "a wintry star," is "a stormy star." The ancients regularly suspended navigation during the winter months, since they perceived that the worst storms happened during the winter.

Mene fugis? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te
(quando aliud mihi iam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui), 315
per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos,
si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quicquam
dulce meum, miserere domus labentis et istam,
oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem.


Do you flee from me? By these tears and by your hand,
(since I have already left behind nothing else for wretched me),
through our marriage, though the marriage rights which were begun,
if I ever deserved anything well of you, or if anything at all of mine
was sweet to you, take pity on the falling house, and if there is any place still for prayers,
take away this attitude, I beg you.

Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni 320
odere, infensi Tyrii; te propter eundem
exstinctus pudor et, qua sola sidera adibam,
fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris hospes
(hoc solum nomen quoniam de coniuge restat)?


On your account do the Libyan kings and the leaders of the Nomads
hate, the Tyrians are hostile; on account of you yourself, shame
has been extinguished, and, that by which alone I approached the stars,
my earlier reputation has been destroyed. To whom will you forsake me, about to die, O guest
(for this name alone remains from spouse)?

Quid moror? An mea Pygmalion dum moenia frater 325
destruat aut captam ducat Gaetulus Iarbas?
Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset
ante fugam suboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula
luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret,
non equidem omnino capta ac deserta viderer.' 330


What should I delay [for]? Shall I wait while my brother Pygmalion destroys
my [city] walls or while Gaetulian Iarbas leads me captive?
At least if any offspring had been conceived by me from you
before your flight, if any little Aeneas should play for me in the halls,
who at least might recall you in his face,
then indeed I would not seem completely captive and deserted.

Dixerat. Ille Iovis monitis immota tenebat
lumina et obnixus curam sub corde premebat.
tandem pauca refert: 'Ego te, quae plurima fando
enumerare vales, numquam, regina, negabo
promeritam, nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae 335
dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus.


Thus she spoke. He was holding his eyes fixed on the warnings of Jove
and relying on them, he pressed his care under his heart.
Finally he says a few [words]: "I will never deny that you are deserving
of the many things which you were able to enumerate in your speaking,
nor will it displease me to remember Elissa,
while I am mindful of myself (sane) and while spirit rules these limbs.

NOTE: [from Wikipedia] "The name Elissa is probably a Greek rendering of the Phoenician Elishat. The name Dido, used mostly by Latin writers, seems to be a Phoenician form meaning "Wanderer" and was perhaps the name under which Elissa was most familiarly known in Carthage." For the complete article, click //here.//

Pro re pauca loquar. Neque ego hanc abscondere furto
speravi (ne finge) fugam, nec coniugis umquam
praetendi taedas aut haec in foedera veni.


I shall speak a few things on behalf of the matter.
I did not hope to hide this flight by means of trickery (don't imagine that I did),
nor ever did I hold forth the torches of marriage, nor did I ever enter into this contract.

Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam 340
auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas,
urbem Troianam primum dulcisque meorum
reliquias colerem, Priami tecta alta manerent,
et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis.


If the fates were allowing me to lead my life
by my own will and to calm my anguish of my own will,
then I would tend to the city of Troy first and the sweet relics
of my people, and the high roofs of Priam would remain,
and I would have placed a renewed Troy with my own hand for the conquered.

Sed nunc Italiam magnam Gryneus Apollo, 345
Italiam Lyciae iussere capessere sortes;
hic amor, haec patria est. Si te Karthaginis arces
Phoenissam Libycaeque aspectus detinet urbis,
quae tandem Ausonia Teucros considere terra
invidia est? Et nos fas extera quaerere regna. 350


But now Grynean Apollo and the fates of Lycia
have ordered me to try to reach for great Italy;
this is my love, this is my fatherland. If the citadels of Carthage
and the look of a Libyan city holds you, who are a Phonecian woman,
then what envy is there for the Trojans to rest in an Italian land?
And it is right even for us to seek external kingdoms.

Me patris Anchisae, quotiens umentibus umbris
nox operit terras, quotiens astra ignea surgunt,
admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago;
me puer Ascanius capitisque iniuria cari,
quem regno Hesperiae fraudo et fatalibus aruis. 355


As often as night covers the lands with its humid shades,
as often as the fiery stars rise, the blurry image of my father Anchises
warns me in my sleep and terrifies me;
my boy Ascanius and the injury to his dear head terrify me,
whom I defraud of the kingdom of Italy and of his fated fields.

Nunc etiam interpres divum Iove missus ab ipso
(testor utrumque caput) celeris mandata per auras
detulit: ipse deum manifesto in lumine vidi
intrantem muros vocemque his auribus hausi.
desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis; 360
Italiam non sponte sequor.'


Even now an interpreter of the gods sent from Jove himself
(I swear on either head) has carried down orders from
the swift winds: I myself saw the god entering the walls (city)
in the clear light and I drank up his voice with these ears.
And Stop inflaming me, you and your complaints;
I pursue Italy not by my will."

Talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur
huc illuc voluens oculos totumque pererrat
luminibus tacitis et sic accensa profatur:
"Nec tibi diva parens generis nec Dardanus auctor, 365
perfide, sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens
Caucasus Hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera tigres.


She, for a long time having turned away, watches the one saying these things
and turning her eyes this way and that and she surveys everything
with her silent gaze and thus incensed, she addresses him thus:
"The goddess is not your parent nor Dardanus your sire,
you treacherous one, but rather Caucasus bristling with crags gave birth to you
and Hyrcanean tigers move their udders to you.

Nam quid dissimulo aut quae me ad maiora reservo?
Num fletu ingemuit nostro? Num lumina flexit?
Num lacrimas victus dedit aut miseratus amantem est? 370
Quae quibus anteferam? Iam iam nec maxima Iuno
nec Saturnius haec oculis pater aspicit aequis.


But why should I pretend, or to what greater things am I saving myself?
Surely he did not groan at my tears? Surely he did not move his gaze?
Certainly he, conquered, did not give tears and did not take pity on his lover?
What [things] should I put before [other things]? Clearly now neither great Juno
nor the Saturnian father [Jupiter] looks at these things with fair gaze.

Nusquam tuta fides. Eiectum litore, egentem
excepi et regni demens in parte locavi.
Amissam classem, socios a morte reduxi 375
(heu furiis incensa feror!): nunc augur Apollo,
nunc Lyciae sortes, nunc et Iove missus ab ipso
interpres divum fert horrida iussa per auras.


No longer is faith secure. Out of my mind, I saved one who was thrown
from his shore, who was impoverished, and I placed him in part of my kingdom.
I brought back his lost fleet and I brought back his comrades from death
(alas, inflamed, I am being carried by the Furies !): now the augur Apollo,
now the Lycian books of fate, now an interpreter of the gods sent
from Jove himself carries horrible orders through the sky.

Scilicet is superis labor est, ea cura quietos
sollicitat. Neque te teneo neque dicta refello: 380
i, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas.


Of course this is work for the gods, this concern disturbs those quiet beings.
I won't hold you back and I don't refute your words:
go, follow the winds, seek kingdoms through the waves.

Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt,
supplicia hausurum scopulis et nomine Dido
saepe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens
et, cum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus, 385
omnibus umbra locis adero. Dabis, improbe, poenas.
audiam et haec Manis veniet mihi fama sub imos."


But I hope indeed, if the higher powers are able at all,
that you will drink up your prayers on the crags and that
you will call out Dido often by name.
Although absent, I shall follow in dark fires
and when cold death has withdrawn
your limbs from life, I will be present as a shade (ghost)."

His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit et auras
aegra fugit seque ex oculis auertit et aufert,
linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem 390
dicere. Suscipiunt famulae conlapsaque membra
marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt.


These things having been said, she broke off her speech in the middle and,
weary, she fled the open air and turned herself away from his eyes and carries herself away,
she, leaving him delaying much from fear and preparing to say many things.
Her slaves grab her and carry her collapsed limbs
to the marble bedchamber and put her on the sheets.

At pius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem
solando cupit et dictis avertere curas,
multa gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore 395
iussa tamen diuum exsequitur classemque revisit.


But pious Aeneas, although he wishes to soothe the grieving (one)
by means of consolation and to turn aside her cares by means of speech,
groaning much and weakened in his mind with great love,
he nevertheless carries out the orders of the gods, and revisits (returns to) his fleet.

Tum vero Teucri incumbunt et litore celsas
deducunt toto navis. Natat uncta carina,
frondentisque ferunt remos et robora silvis
infabricata fugae studio. 400
Migrantis cernas totaque ex urbe ruentis:


Then truly the Trojans push on, and they lead down
the swift ships from the entire shore. The greased prow floats,
and they carry leafy oars and barely fashioned oak
from the forest (because of eagerness for leaving).
You might discern people migrating and rushing from the whole city:

Ac velut ingentem formicae farris acervum
cum populant hiemis memores tectoque reponunt,
it nigrum campis agmen praedamque per herbas
convectant calle angusto; pars grandia trudunt 405
obnixae frumenta umeris, pars agmina cogunt
castigantque moras, opere omnis semita feruet.


And just as when ants, mindful of winter, plunder
a huge pile of spelt, and they store it in their roofs,
the black battle-line goes through the fields and
they carry their spoils through the grasses in a narrow path;
part of them push the huge grain, leaning into it with their shoulders,
part urges on the battle-lines, and they punish delays, the whole path
seethes with work.

Quis tibi tum, Dido, cernenti talia sensus,
quosue dabas gemitus, cum litora fervere late
prospiceres arce ex summa, totumque videres 410
misceri ante oculos tantis clamoribus aequor!
Improbe Amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis!


What was your sense then, Dido, discerning such things,
and what groans were you giving, while you were seeing,
from the high citadel, that the shore was seething widely (with Aeneas' men),
and when you were seeing that the whole sea was mixed up
before your very eyes with such an uproar!
Wicked Cupid/Love, what do you not compel mortal hearts [to do]!

Ire iterum in lacrimas, iterum temptare precando
cogitur et supplex animos summittere amori,
ne quid inexpertum frustra moritura relinquat. 415


She is compelled again to go into tears and begin to try
by means of prayer and, on her knees, to submit her spirits to love,
lest she, about to die, might leave anything untested in vain.

"Anna, vides toto properari litore circum:
undique convenere; vocat iam carbasus auras,
puppibus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas.
hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem,
et perferre, soror, potero. Miserae hoc tamen unum 420
exsequere, Anna, mihi; solam nam perfidus ille
te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus;
sola viri mollis aditus et tempora noras.


"Anna, you see bustling all around the shore:
and they have come together from all sides; now the sail calls out to the winds,
and the happy sailors have placed crowns/garlands on the sterns.
If I were able to anticipate that this would be such a great pain, then I would
even be able to endure it, sister. Nevertheless, Anna, complete this one thing
for wretched me; for that traitorous man was accustomed to cultivate you,
and even to entrust to you hidden feelings;
You alone knew the soft approaches and the times of the man.

I, soror, atque hostem supplex adfare superbum:
non ego cum Danais Troianam exscindere gentem 425
Aulide iuravi classemue ad Pergama misi,
nec patris Anchisae cinerem manisue revelli:
cur mea dicta negat duras demittere in auris?


Go, sister, and, on your knees, address the proud enemy.
I did not swear with the Greeks to destroy the Trojan people at Aulis
nor did I send a fleet to Troy, nor did I tear off the ashes or the remains of his father Anchises:
Why does he deny to send my words into his harsh ears?

Quo ruit? Extremum hoc miserae det munus amanti:
exspectet facilemque fugam ventosque ferentis. 430
Non iam coniugium antiquum, quod prodidit, oro,
nec pulchro ut Latio careat regnumque relinquat:


What is his rush? Let him give this last gift to the wretched lover:
Let him expect an easy flight and carrying winds.
No longer do I pray for the old marriage, which he betrayed,
nor that he lack beautiful Latium and abandon the kingdom.

Tempus inane peto, requiem spatiumque furori,
dum mea me victam doceat fortuna dolere.
Extremam hanc oro veniam (miserere sororis), 435
quam mihi cum dederit cumulatam morte remittam.'
Talibus orabat, talisque miserrima fletus
fertque refertque soror. Sed nullis ille movetur
fletibus aut voces ullas tractabilis audit;


I ask for an empty time, a rest and a space from his madness,
while my fortune should teach me, (I/Dido) having been conquered, to grieve.
I pray for this final pardon (have pity on your sister),
which, when he shall have given it to me, I will pay it back in a bunch, with death."
She was praying with such words, and the most wretched sister was enduring
such tears (from her sister) and she returned/reported them. But he (Aeneas) is moved by no tears, nor does he hear any voices as a gentle person;

Fata obstant placidasque viri deus obstruit auris. 440
Ac velut annoso validam cum robore quercum
Alpini Boreae nunc hinc nunc flatibus illinc
eruere inter se certant; it stridor, et altae
consternunt terram concusso stipite frondes;


The fates have struck and the god blocks the ears of the man so they become calm.
And just as when the Alpine winds strive among themselves to overthrow
an oak tree which is strong with old wood, now this way now that with their blasts;
The noise goes, and the high leaves cover the ground with the trunk having been shaken;

Ipsa haeret scopulis et quantum vertice ad auras 445
aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit:
haud secus adsiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus heros
tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas;
mens immota manet, lacrimae volvuntur inanes.


She herself (the tree) clings to the crag, and as much as she stretches up
towards the sky with her peak, so much does she stretch into the underworld with her roots:
No differently, is the hero struck on this side and that with continual speeches,
and he feels concerns in his great chest;
the mind stays unmoved, empty tears flow.